The different types of flour and their use

There are quite a few different types of flour, but not all are suitable for baking. I've been smart and found many different types of flour, most of which I did not even know. Maybe many of you are as well, that's why I put together the following overview.

The interesting thing is that baking flour can only be made from cereals wheat, rye and spelled. Flour from the other types of cereals such as barley, oats, millet or corn, etc. can be used at most for baking flat flatbread or flat cake. This is because these flours contain little or no gluten (a protein glue), which is important for the baking quality of the flour, because it ensures good pore formation and a firm crumb. You can add these types of flour but, for example, when baking bread to the baking flour and so vary the bread flavor.

1. wheat flour

The most common baking flour is the wheat flour, it contains good protein glue (gluten), which must be stimulated by kneading and developed. For people with gluten sensitivity (celiac disease), the consumption of wheat is problematic because the gluten can severely hamper digestion.

The wheat flour is distinguished by the following types:

  • Type 405 - white flour, the normal baking flour
  • Type 550 - almost like white flour, is called all-purpose flour or cake flour
  • Type 812 - dark bun or bread flour for light or dark mixed breads
  • Type 1050 - darker blend containing already visible shell parts
  • Type 1600 - Baking flour for dark mixed breads
  • Type 1700 - wholegrain flour without seedling, for wholegrain breads

2. Rye flour

  • Type 610 - Rye flour
  • Type 815 - light bread flour
  • Type 997 - Brown bread and mixed bread flour without bran and germ, for dark crust breads
  • Type 1150 - normal bread flour
  • Type 1370 - Kommissbrotmehl
  • Type 1740 - dark bread flour
  • Type 1800 - Rye baking meal, ground without germs
  • Rye whole grain meal - the whole grain with peel, meal and germ is scrapped
  • Rye flour - the whole grain with shell, flour body and germ is finely ground

3. Spelled flours

  • Type 405 - is equivalent to the wheat flour type 405
  • Type 630 - corresponds to wheat flour types 550 and 812
  • Type 1050 - is equivalent to the wheat flour type 1050
  • Wholemeal spelled flour - corresponds to whole wheat flour

4. Mixed flours

  • Type 700 - Wheat / rye flour for farmhouse bread
  • Type 1000 - Wheat / rye flour for dark farmhouse bread
  • Five-wheat flour - Wheat / rye / spelled / barley / oats for strong bread flour with portions of grist

5. Other flours

Soybean meal: There are two types: full fat soy flour (with 18-20% fat and 38% protein) and defatted soy flour (with 1% fat and 50% protein). The full-fat flour is ground from the whole beans after peeling and light roasting, while the defatted soy flour is a by-product of oil production (it is produced in the oil mill from the press cake after separating the soybean oil). Soya beans are only used as added flours for normal cereal flour when baking (up to approx. 20%).

Oatmeal: The oatmeal has a nutty flavor and contains many proteins as well as oil. You can make it yourself if you puree oatmeal with the blender. For baking, the oatmeal must be mixed with other types of flour. It is not only used for baking bread, it can also be used to bake fine cakes, cookies and muffins. It is also used for muesli, porridge and slime soup.

buckwheat flourBuckwheat belongs to the knotweed family and has nothing to do with wheat, but the seeds are very similar to wheat grains. The flour made from it is gluten-free, so it must be mixed with other types of flour for baking. Buckwheat flour is z. B. for pancakes, blinis and dumplings used, but also waffles, muffins, cakes and pies you can bake it.

Chapatimehl: This flour is made from a mixture of barley, wheat and millet, which is ground very finely. This is mainly made from chapatis, which are dough pies, which are the staple food in Pakistan and northern India. Chapatimehl you get in Asia and India stores. It can also be replaced by wheat flour (Type 1050).

Barley flour: Because of the very low gluten content barley flour is hardly used for bread baking.

Green bean gum: To do this, roast the immature, green grain of the spelled immediately after harvest, which makes it grindable. Greenskin has a nutty flavor and can be used to bake bread, cakes and cookies.

Millet flour: The millet flour has a high protein content and contains little gluten, so it is also not suitable for baking bread without the addition of other types of flour.

kamut flour: Kamut, the original form of wheat, which originated from a cross between hard and wild wheat, is one of the oldest cereals.Kamut flour contains a lot of protein, vitamins, minerals and also a lot of gluten which makes it very sticky and very suitable for baking bread. You get it in health food stores.

Chestnut flour: To make chestnut flour, sweet chestnuts (chestnuts) are watered and air-dried after harvest, then the shell is removed and the smaller chestnuts are ground to a fine flour. This flour is gluten-free, has a sweet and strong taste and can only be used in combination with other flours for baking. It is also great for organic cooking.

Cornmeal: It is also a gluten-free flour made from yellow or white corn. For baking, it is finely ground and must be mixed with other types of flour (eg wheat flour).

malt flour: This flour consists of a mixture of rye flour, brown wheat flour and wheat malt. With wheat malt, the bread made from malted flour gets a sweetish taste and a slightly sticky texture.

Tempura: Tempura flour is a mixture of rice flour, wheat flour (also corn flour) and baking powder. It is mainly used to make tempura dough in Asian cuisine. It is available in Asian or organic stores.

Chickpea flour: This is a gluten-free flour made from wrinkled legume. You usually get it in health food stores.

Rice flour: It is made from polished, finely ground rice and contains no gluten. It is mainly used as a binder or flour substitute in a wheat allergy. The rice flour is only suitable for baking if it is mixed, for example, with soya flour or millet semolina.


Understanding Different Flours and When to Use Them- Kitchen Conundrums with Thomas Joseph | May 2024